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The species Tyrannosaurus rex (rex meaning "king" in Latin), is one of the most well-represented of the large theropods.
Tyrannosaurus lived throughout what is now western North America, on what was then an island continent known as Laramidia.
In contrast the hind limbs were among the longest in proportion to body size of any theropod.
The tail was heavy and long, sometimes containing over forty vertebrae, in order to balance the massive head and torso.
To compensate for the immense bulk of the animal, many bones throughout the skeleton were hollow, reducing its weight without significant loss of strength.
Large fenestrae (openings) in the skull reduced weight and provided areas for muscle attachment, as in all carnivorous theropods.
The question of whether Tyrannosaurus was an apex predator or a pure scavenger was among the longest ongoing debates in paleontology.
Several other genera of North American tyrannosaurids have also been synonymized with Tyrannosaurus.
Relative to its large and powerful hind limbs, Tyrannosaurus fore limbs were short but unusually powerful for their size and had two clawed digits.
The most complete specimen measures up to 12.3 m (40 ft) in length, Although other theropods rivaled or exceeded Tyrannosaurus rex in size, it is still among the largest known land predators and is estimated to have exerted the largest bite force among all terrestrial animals.
Because all known skin impressions from larger tyrannosauroids known at the time showed evidence of scales, the researchers who studied Dilong speculated that feathers may correlate negatively with body size—that juveniles may have been feathered, then shed the feathers and expressed only scales as the animal became larger and no longer needed insulation to stay warm.
others, such as Yutyrannus huali (which was up to 9 meters (30 ft) long and weighed about 1,400 kilograms (3,100 lb)), preserve feathers on various sections of the body, strongly suggesting that its whole body was covered in feathers.